Who is The Shaitaan?

 

Shaitaan, also known as Iblis, is the Devil. Every major religion has references about Shaitaan. Some stories about him found in texts of religions other than Islam are factual and verifiable; others are exaggerations, inaccurate or false.  Other than what is mentioned about him in the Quran and the authentic traditions (hadith) of the Prophet , factual and validated details of his historical origin are sketchy. The only reliable accounts about him are those, which have been verified by the Islamic divine cannons.  Some accounts about Shaitaan found in Judaic or biblical sources are verifiable by Islamic historical referencing, others are not.[1]  Shaitaan is the enemy of mankind. His goal is deceive men and women, and lead them away from Allah.[2]

Azaazeel, the Pre-Adamite Devil

 

There are several narrations by the companion of the Prophet   Ibn Abbas and others about Iblis before Adam which detail his origin, history and upbringing.  Many of these narrations contain weakness in the chain of transmission due to the unreliability of a narrator, or a missing link (or links) in the chain itself.[3] Therefore, in presenting this work, I have limited myself primarily to authentic and dependable sources as proofs, unauthenticated hadith and narrations are used as supporting evidences[4].

 

What is known about Iblis is that he is a member of the Jinn race, and that the creation of the jinn predated that of the Prophet Adam (AS). And Jaan,[5] we have created Him from before from intense radiated heat.”[6] It was reported about ibn Abbas that he said: “Allah has said: “Verily I shall create in the earth a vicegerent, they (the Angels) said; would you create in her that which will create mischief and shed blood?[7] The jinn, who were the children of Jaan existed one thousand years before the creation of Adam. They spread corruption upon the earth, and shed blood. Allah then sent an army of angels who fought them and drove them to islands that were upon the seas. Thus when Allah said; “Verily I shall create in the earth a vicegerent, they (the Angels) said; would you create in her that which will create mischief and shed blood? It was a reference to the Jaan race, (spilling blood and creating havoc).[8]

 

That Shaitaan operates from his headquarters upon water. According to the Prophet  ;   “Verily Iblis has placed his throne upon water. From there he sends out his troops. Those closest to him are the ones who wreak the most havoc (fitna), and one of them will come to him (Shaitaan) and say: ‘I did so and so.’ He will say to him, ‘You did nothing’, and then one of them will come and say, ‘I did not leave so and so alone until I caused him to break up (divorce) with his wife.’ Then Shaitaan will draw that one close to him and say: “Yes, you are the one.”[9]

 

Because of the numerous accounts of paranormal activity in the Bermuda Triangle in the Atlantic Ocean, people have suggested that this throne exists there. To date, its exact whereabouts are unknown. An Allah knows best.

What are Jinn?

Jinns are free willed, thinking beings that occupy the earth along with mankind. Jinns are created from a basis of fire; it was reported in the hadith of Aisha that the Prophet   said: “Angels are created from light, jinn are created from fire, and Adam is created from what was described to you.”[10] Although the foundation of their creation is fire, they are not in their present form, beings of fire. In one tradition, the Prophet   wrestled with the Shaitaan and described the coolness of his spittle; “The Shaitaan appeared before me once while I was offering my salaat[11], I subdued him and felt the coolness of his spittle on my hand.[12] The difference between the source matter of the jinn and their matter at the completion of their creation is similar to that of human beings who, though created from dirt, their completed composition is not dirt. Al-Qadi Abu Ya’la[13] says that it is possible for jinn to be transparent or in visible form[14].

Jinns are obligated to worship Allah. “And We have not created the Jinn nor Mankind except to worship Me.”[15] They have children, “Will ye then take him (Shaitaan) and his offspring as friends while they are an enemy to you?” They eat and drink, and amongst them are believers and disbelievers. “Among us are Muslims and among us are Backsliders”.

Types of Jinn

There are three varieties of jinn. One is in the form of snakes and lizards. Another type includes jinn who fly about, and a third is jinn who walk the earth. Many of the latter live in colonies and are found in deserts, mountains, forests, and remote islands of the earth. It was reported in the hadith of Abu Tha’laba al-Khash’nee that he  said: “The jinn are three forms: a form with wings who fly through the air, a form that are snakes and dogs, and a form who move about and migrate.”[16]

In it also reported in an hadith of Abu Dar’daa’ that the Prophet  said: “Allah has created the jinn in three forms: a form that are snakes, scorpions, and insects of the earth, a form that are like wind in the air, and a form that are subject to reckoning and punishment.”[17] In the hadith of Abu Qalaaba the Prophet  said, “If it weren’t that dogs were a nation, I would have commanded that they be killed, but I feared exterminating a nation. Therefore kill the black ones for they are its jinn.”[18]

 

Belief in the Reality of the Shaitaan and of the Jinn

One day He will gather them all together, (and say): Oh you assembly of Jinns! Much (toll) did you take of men.[19]

Belief in the unseen is part of the Islamic theological creed and incumbent upon every Muslim. Without it, one cannot consider his or herself to be a Muslim by agreement of all the Muslim scholars. “Alif Laam Meem.[20] This is the book about which there is no doubt, Guidance to the pious, those who believe in the unseen and establish prayer and spend out of what we have provided them.”[21] Our knowledge of the Shaitaan, and of the Jinn, is predicated upon our belief in Allah, His book, His Prophet, and in the unseen normal and paranormal events mentioned in the sacred texts of Islam. The true reality of the unseen world is known only to Allah ta’ala, and He imparts knowledge of it to whomever He pleases, whenever He pleases, and however He pleases. This is the position of all the scholars of Ahlus Sunna wa jamaa’ah.[22]

 

Belief in the jinn is part of the Muslim orthodox (Sunni) creed. Not believing in their existence after having been shown proofs from the Quran and the Sunna is heresy. One of the victories of the Shaitaan over people is that he convinced them that he is does not exist. Another is that he convinces people that even though he exists, he is not an enemy to man. Jinn are a part of the unseen world about which the Prophet (SAWS) informed us through revelation. “These are in formatives of the unseen which we inspire to you.[23] Human beings have a member of the jinn race assigned to him or her to incite them to wrongdoing.

It was reported that the Prophet  said: “There is no one amongst you except that there is a companion assigned to him from the jinn and a companion assigned to him from the angels.” So they said: “Even you, O Messenger of Allah? He replied: “Even me, except that Allah has assisted me with him and he accepted Islam, so now he only incites me to do good.”[24] Scholars differ on whether anyone else’s jinn can convert to Islam. They all agree, however, that by increased faith, and action, the effects of anyone’s jinn will lessen.

 

The Difference Between Jinns and Shayaateen (demons).

The word Shaitaan comes from the Arabic root shay ta na which means rebellious. The word Shaitaan denotes a man, a jinn or an animal that has become completely obstinate and rebellious, thus becoming a demon or a Shaitaan. [25]  Every Shaitaan is not a jinn, a Shaitaan can be human; “We have made for every Prophet, enemies from amongst human and jinni demons.[26] Similarly, every jinn is not a Shaitaan, Jinns can be believers “Allah has assisted me with him and he accepted Islam, so now he only incites me to do good.”[27]Amongst us[28] are Muslims and amongst us are backsliders (infidels)”.[29]

 

During the time of the Prophet   there was a contingent of jinn who lived in Madinah. “Verily in Madinah are jinn who have converted to Islam. If you see any of them, ask them to leave (your homes) for three consecutive days. If they remain after that, kill them for they are demons.[30] Jinns, like human beings have different levels of faith and different degrees of disbelief. Just as there are many human beings wishing no harm for the Muslim, such exists from amongst the jinn. According to Ibn Abdul-Birr,[31] the people of theology and language place the jinn in several categories. “When mentioned alone they mean jinni, when referring to the jinn that live amongst people they say aamir, the plural being ammaar. When referring to the ones who manifest themselves to vision they say spirits. When they become degenerate and wicked they say Shaitaan (devil), and when they become more powerful than that, they call them Ifreet.”[32]

Was Iblis an Angel, or a Jinni?

 

“They all prostrated except Iblis, he was of the Jinn (race)”[33]

While the scholars of Ahlus Sunna all agree that the Iblis is originally of the Jinn race, they differ on whether the jinn race is a subdivision of the angelic species, or a separate species all together. The basis of this difference is the depiction of the Iblis in the Quran as being from amongst the angels in one instance and as being from amongst the jinn in another. A verse in sura al-Baqara states;And when We said to the angels, prostrate to Adam, and they all prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was arrogant and was of the unbelievers,”[34] depicts Iblis as part of the contingent of angels. While a verse in sura Kahf (the cave); “And when We said to the angels, prostrate to Adam, and they all prostrated except Iblis, he was of the Jinn (race) and he exited from the command of his Lord”,[35]  affirms that he was a Jinn. According to the great mufassir,[36] Imam Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi,[37] the majority of scholars, including ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Mas’ood from amongst the companions of the Prophet , and Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib[38] from amongst the Taabi’een, regard the Shaitaan as an errant angel belonging to a subdivision of angels known as jinn.

This is also the view of Imam al-Tabari, the great historian, jurist, and exegete. Al-Tha’laby narrated that ibn Abbas said: “Iblis came from a tribe of the angelic tribes that was called ‘Jinn.’ They were created from smokeless fire and the other jinn were created from light. His Syriac name was Azaazeel and his Arabic name was al-Haarith, and he was one of the custodians of paradise. He was the captain of the angels of the lower heaven and given rule over it and over the earth. He was the most vigilant and knowledgeable of the angels and governed what was between the heaven and the earth. He saw himself great and honored because of this. This is what prompted him to disbelief and eventually disobey Allah. He was thus transmuted into the accursed devil.”[39]

According to al-Qurtubi, it is understandable that angels are called jinn[40] because they are veiled from us.[41] The great Shaafi’ee judge Abu Hasan al-Maawardi[42] relates that the jinn is a tribe of angels that were created from fire while the rest of the angels were created from light.[43]

The view that the Shaitaan was an errant jinni, of a sub race of angels takes into account the seemingly variant verses on the matter. Shaitaan being jinn does not nullify that the jinn were a sub race of angels. This hypothesis is supported by what was related by al-Maawardi that Qataada said: “He (Iblis) was from an elite group of angels called ‘Jinna’ (need reference) A similar narration is reported about Sa’eed ibn Jubair` who said that the jinn are a tribe of angels.[44]

The view that Iblis originally was an angel seems to be supported by syntax; In the verse: “And when We said to the angels, prostrate to Adam, and they all prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was arrogant and was of the unbelievers,” the word “Iblis”, falls in the accusative case (mansoob), and demonstrates a linked exclusion (istith’naa muttasil). This is an Arabic grammatical construction by which the included and the excluded are of the same genus. As in the phrase: “All the people ate except Ali” (fa akaloo annaasu illa Ali), wherein the exclusion of Ali from eating does not exclude him from being of the people. Furthermore, the affirmative nature of the sentence: “And they all prostrated,” bolsters the necessity of linkage between included and excluded in the above verse. And Allah knows best.

Other scholars maintain that the Shaitaan was never an angel. They view the original jinn race as separate from the angels. They cite as part of their argument the inability of angels to disobey Allah ta’ala as in the verse: “They do not disobey Allah in what He commands them and they do as they are commanded.”[45] They also use the verse:  And when We said to the angels, prostrate to Adam, and they all prostrated except Iblis, he was of the Jinn (race) and he exited from the command of his Lord.”[46] Hasan al-Basri[47] and Qataada[48], in a variant narration about him, say that Iblis was the father of jinn just as Adam was the father of mankind and that he was not an angel.[49]

Whether the Shaitaan originally was an angel or was a jinni is a subject where scholars of Islam have legitimate differences. Only Allah knows their reality. “And We have not given you of knowledge except a little.”[50] The Prophet  did not clarify this issue in its entirety for the Muslims. This is the mercy of Allah so that we would not become distracted in debate over his origin, which to do so is another distraction. Knowing where Iblis comes from does not does not negate his reality. His exists by divine decree; this cannot be countered by man.

The Devil’s Names

 

The Devil or Shaitaan (Satan) is known by many names in different languages, cultures, and religions. In the sacred texts of Islam, he is known primarily as the Shaitaan. For the sake of space, we will only look at some of the other names by which he and his ancestors are called in Islamic texts.

 

Azaazeel: This was the original name of the devil before the creation of man according to Ibn Abbas.

 

Al-Haarith: This is the Arabic form for the name Azaazeel.

 

Iblis: This is one of the names used for the Devil in the Quran. According to Imam al-Qurtubi, the name Iblis comes from the word ‘iblaas,’ which means despair. Indeed, Iblis is despaired of the mercy of Allah.

 

Al-Khannaas: This name is taken from the Quran in sura Al-Nas, 114:4. It denotes a being that surreptitiously comes and goes.

 

Al-Gharoor: The deceiver. This is mentioned in the Quran in sura Luqman, 31:33.

 

Jaan (need reference): This name is thought to be that of the father of all Jinn according to some narrations.

 

Samoom: Another name for the father of the Jinn according to a narration by ibn Abbas. This name appears in the Quran in sura Hajar, 15:27.

What Everyone Should Know About Iblis

 

Name: Iblis

Rank: First Class Corrupt Deceiver

Country: The hearts of the heedless

Tribe: Those who wish to be obeyed other than Allah (taaghoot)

Wives: Scantily clad women

Brethren: Squanderers

Friends: The Munaafiqoon (hypocrites)

Capital: False aspirations

Court: The market places

His laboratory: Unclean places, and places where disobedience occurs.

Primary Enemies: Muslims

Secondary Enemies: All of mankind

Partners in Crime: Those who are silent about the truth.

Traveling Companions: Demonic men and jinn (shayaateen)

His Guide: A mirage

His Destination: The hell-fire

Final Destination: The Hell-Fire

Who does he love? The spiritually negligent

His mark: Tattoos

His opening debut as Iblis: The day he refused to prostrate to Adam

His primary sustenance: Unlawful earnings

His Food: That upon which Allah’s name is not mentioned

Favorite Food: Dead flesh (backbiting)

His religion: Disbelief (kufr)

Mode of transport: Lies and Deceit

Quality of his plan: Weak

His wish: That all of mankind disbelieve in Allah

Favorite actions: Homosexuality

Pet Peeve: Repentance and the seeking of forgiveness from Allah

What makes him cry: Prostration to Allah

What makes him laugh: Yawning and laziness

Length of Service: Until the Day of Judgment

Defense against him: Seeking refuge in Allah, Obedience and sincerity to Allah

 

Should People Fear Shaitaan or the Jinn?

People should not fear the Shaitaan or jinn. He cannot blow down buildings with his breath or snap his fingers and shoot fireballs. He does not send people to the hell-fire or pardon them from it like they show in the movies. He doesn’t dispatch people on motorcycles to collect souls for him.  He does however; lead people astray and we should fear the consequences of following him and being lead astray by his call. Even Shaitaan in his arrogance, fears Allah; “Verily I fear Allah Lord of the worlds” In fact, jinn are more afraid of human beings then we are of them. According to Mujaahid, “They are in awe of you just like you are in awe of them.”[51] It was reported that he said: “The Shaitaan is more afraid of you than you are of him so if he manifests himself to you, do not run away but instead challenge him and he will go.”[52] It was also reported that a jinn exposed himself to the Prophet  during the salaat and the Prophet  grabbed him subdued him with his hands. Then he said, “Were it not for the du’aa of Sulaimaan, I would have captured him, and tied him up in the Masjid so the children could play with him (like a pet).”[53]

It is authenticated in tradition that several times while distributing charity, Abu Hurraira encountered a Shaitaan posing as a man. He threatened to take him into custody and finally the satanic man taught Abu Hurraira that the verse of the throne (Quran, al-Baqara, 2:255) recited at night would protect him from Shaitaan during the night. Jinns will leave a house or to leave an area when commanded. These narrations and others show that the shayaateen are not the big menacing monsters that break into your house and thrash you about as shown in the movies. However, in some instances, especially in the case of demonic possession, jinn can be somewhat menacing to human beings. These are rare cases. In reality, the only one deserving of fear is Allah sub’hanahu wa ta’ala.

What Does Being Astray Mean?

Human beings by nature are not static beings suspended in spiritual animation. Faith increases and decreases by agreement of the scholars of Islam. Each person of sanity is on a path. “Verily We have shown him to a path; either he will be grateful or either he will be ungrateful[54].” Being astray means deceived into following other than Allah’s straight path. Every path other than Allah’s path leads away from his path. “And this is my straight path so follow it. And do not follow the other paths for they will scatter you away from His (Allah’s) path.[55]

No one is astray in every matter. The Shaitaan, although astray, has been known to tell the truth. “He is the Shaitaan; even though he is a liar, he has told the truth[56]”. Just as a person can be a habitual liar and still tell the truth, a person can be astray in one thing and rightly guided in another. Every falsehood has the potential to lead to disbelief, which earns eternal damnation. Below disbelief are many levels of falsehood that although could lead to disbelief, are not disbelief which takes people outside of the religion of Islam. For example, the hadith of the Prophet, “none of you believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself,[57]” does not necessarily negate all of one’s faith. However, not wanting the same for one’s brother as he wants for himself is misguidance and could lead one to total disbelief.

The lowest level of being astray is disbelief (kufr), the lowest level of kufr is polytheism (shirk). The most debased type of being astray is hypocrisy according to the Islamic definition which is to say that you believe when in reality, you do not believe at all; “Verily the hypocrites (munaafiqeen) will be in the lowest depths of the fire.[58]” That is because such people blanket themselves in deception. Add deception to anything and it worsens it.

The core of being astray is the inability to distinguish truth from falsehood, or the absence of truth altogether. This is why the Shaitaan is fond of mixing truth with falsehood; people who seek righteousness are attracted by the truth in a thing, but deceived because they are unable to recognize the falsehood that is mixed with it. Thus they swallow everything; truth and falsehood together.

Ignorance of this fact has misled many of us into perpetuating falsehood in the name of truth. Allah is the truth, He guides to the truth, He speaks the truth and He is the truth. The religion of Allah is true, the Quran is true and the Prophet  is truthful. Belief and right guidance is in what Allah has revealed to His Prophet  and believing what the Prophet  has said about Allah and what Allah has said about Himself. What the Shaitaan does is try to convince people otherwise. He embellishes the world to entice men and women, and to make things appear other than what they are. “Oh Lord,” he said, ‘Since you have led me into error, I’ll beguile them with the pleasures of this world and lead them all astray. Except for the sincere ones from amongst your servants.”[59]

Why can’t people just be righteous

It is easy to say; why don’t people just obey Allah? After all, obeying Allah and His Prophet  is the key to success in this world and the hereafter. However, the condition of the heart must be right and the proper methods and ways of spiritual success must be employed. The divine laws of cause and effect necessitate that unless certain instruction and strategy is followed, spiritual success and right guidance is elusive and impossible to obtain.

Righteousness is not an entitlement, or something pulled out of thin air. It is gained by seeking it, striving for it, and Allah’s divine mercy. “Those who strive in Our way, we guide them to our paths.”[60] Shaitaan has deceived many men and woman by making them oblivious to the process of guidance and falsehood. When things go awry, we shake our heads and wonder why. Whereas if we are aware of the nature of guidance and of falsehood, we would understand why things happen they way they do.

What is Shaitaan’s Strategy?

His principle strategy for leading people astray is deception and embellishment of {worldly things and pursuits. “I shall make evil fair-seeming to them in the earth and I shall deceive them all[61]”.  He achieves his aim by fooling people into believing what is false and disbelieving what is true, by embellishing worldly things and worldly pursuits so that they appear other than what they are, by mixing truth with falsehood so that both become obscured, and by infecting the heart so that it is unable to distinguish right from wrong.

There is no arena that he will not enter; there is no opportunity that he will let pass by.  He lures people astray from the right path through deceit (ghuroor) and evil incitement (al-amru bil fah’shaa wal munkar). When people follow the footsteps of the shaitaan, they employ his tactics. “Oh you who believe, do not follow the footsteps of the Shaitaan for verily he enjoins evil and wrongdoing.”  All of his followers use the same tactic. They lie, they deceive, they embellish and exaggerate, and they masquerade. This is why fake finger nails, fake hair, false testimony, forgery, insurance scams, lies, are all prohibited by Islamic law. All of the above are forms of deceit.  When deceit becomes widespread and common, know that the Shaitaan has spread his influence.

 

[1] Biblical or Judaic accounts regarding history, the lives of Prophets, and religious truths do not rank the status of authenticity unless there is verification or corroboration from the Quran and or authenticated statements of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS).  Such statements are either, certified as truth, rejected as falsehood, or  regarded as unverified possibilities depending upon the corroborating or repudiating evidences found in the Quran, in  authentic (sahih) traditions of the Prophet, or in unanimous agreement by the Salaf (early scholars of the first three generations of Islam).

[2] The Supreme Being who has created everything, knows everything, and has power over all things. He is not born nor is he begotten, He has no partners, nor does He share in His dominion over the universe with anyone.  He has no equal, there is nothing else like Him, He has no needs, and everything in the universe is under His rule. The concept of God, known by Muslims as Allah, differs between different faith and different peoples. The true understanding of God, who hereinafter will be referred to as Allah, is found in the Quran and in the prophetic traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS).

[3] Many of the chains of transmission of these reports contain either Abu Huthaifa who was known as a liar, Juwaibir ibn Sa’eed who’s narrations were not regarded, Habib Ibn Abi Thaabit the taabi’ee who was regarded as an trustworthy (thiqa) transmitter by some, and defective by others, and Dahaak Ibn Muzaaham another taabi’ee who attributed narrations to Ibn Abbas while not having directly received narration from him. See, Taqreeb al-Tahtheeb by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani, vol. 1. 147, 137, and Mizaan al-I’tidaal, vol. 1, p. 174.

[4] Scholars of Islam differ regarding the use of weak or unsubstantiated hadith. The majority of them accept their usage under the following conditions; 1. That the hadith not be very weak, or contradict authentic ones. 2. That the hadith is not used to make something that is prohibited permissible or something that is permissible prohibited. 3. That the meaning inferred from the hadith or acting upon it is not taken or acted upon under the assumption of absolute correctness, but instead only as an encouragement. See Qawaa’id at-Tah’deeth by Jamaal ad-Deen al-Qaasimee, p. 117.

[5] Scholars differ about what is meant by “Jaan.” There is an authentic narration of Ibn Abbas where he states that “Jaan” was the name of the original Jinn. Others say that it is the name of the jinn race. “Jaan” also means a snake as in the verse: “fa lamma ra’aahaa tah’tazzu kannahaa Jaan”  (And when he saw it, it wriggled like it was a snake), Quran, Al-Naml, 27:10.

[6] Quran, Al-Hijr, 15:27

[7] Quran, al-Baqara 2:30

[8] Collect by al-Haakim in the Mustadrak who classifies it as authentic by the standards of Imams Bukhaari and Muslim.

[9] Collected by Muslim in the hadith of Jaabir ibn Abdullah.

[10] Collected by Muslim

[11] The prescribed prayer

[12] Reported by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad. This hadith was also reported by Imam al-Baihaqi in Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwa in the hadith of Abu Ubaida on the authority of Abdullah with the wording; “One the Shaitaan passed in front of me, I reached at him, took hold of him and restrained him until I felt the coolness of his tongue on my hand. He then said: “You’re hurting me, you’re hurting me!”  If it wasn’t for the supplication of the (the Prophet) Suleiman, he would have been tied to one of the columns in the masjid so that the children of Madinah could look at him”.   This hadith was also reported by Bukhaari on the authority of Muhammad Bashaar, and by Muslim with slightly different wordings.

[13] Muhammad ibn Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Khalf ibn Faraa was a judge during the Abbasid Khalifate of al-Qaa’im and al-Qadir. One of the great scholars of Islamic orthodoxy, he died in 380 h.

[14] Luqt al-Mar’jaan fi Ah’kaam al-Jaan, by Jalaluddin as-Suyuti, page. 34.

[15] Quran, Al-Dhariyat, 51:56

[16] Collected by as-Suyuti in al-Jaami’ as-Sagheer with a sound chain.

[17] A weak hadith collected by ibn Abi Dunyaa in ‘Makaayeed as-Shaitaan’ and by Hakeem al-Tirmithee in Nawaadir al-Usool and by others.

[18] Collected by Muslim

[19] Quran, 6:128

[20] No one knows the true meanings of these letters that appear at the beginning of some suras in the Quran. The majority of scholars of the Islamic orthodoxy (Sunni Muslims) consider the meanings of these letters as part of the knowledge of which Allah has kept to himself.

[21] Quran, Al-Baqara, 2:1-3

[22] Literally, the people of Prophetic tradition and group, in other words, orthodox or Sunni Muslims.

[23] Quran,11:49

[24] Collected by Ahmad and Muslim.

[25] Al-Qamoos al-Muhit, by Muhammad ibn Ya’qoob al- Fayrooz’abaadee (d. 817 H.), p. 1560

[26] Quran, 6:112

[27] Collected by Bukhaari

[28] Amongst us jinn.

[29] Quran, 72:14 al-Jinn.

[30] Collected by Muslim, Jinns which are not demons, be they snakes and lizards, flying jinn or walking jinn, ordinarily mean no harm to people, under normal circumstances, they will leave a home if asked.

[31] Yusuf   Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Abdul-Birr, a Maaliki scholar of hadith, a historian, and the author of many classical Islamic works. He died in the Hijri year 463.

[32] Luqt al-Marjaan fi Ah’kaamul Jaan, By Jalaalud Din as-Suyuti, p. 24-25 1986 Darul Kotob al-Ilmiyyah edition.

[33] Quran, 18:50

[34] Quran, Al-Baqara, 2:34

[35] Quran, Al-Kahf, 18:50,

[36] Exegete or one who is qualified to interpret and explain the meanings of the Quran according to accepted traditional methods.

[37] Imam al-Qurtubi was a Maaliki scholar of prophetic tradition and one of the greatest Quranic exegetes of all time. He died in 671 of the H.

[38] Considered the Imam of the Taabi’een

[39] Al-Jaami li Ah’kaam al-Quran, by Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi, vol. 1, p. 203. , 1996 edition, Darul Kotob al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut Lebanon.

[40] The verb ‘janna’ in Arabic means to be concealed. From it comes the word Janna (Garden of Paradise), which is concealed from us until the Day of Judgment, and jinn which are also concealed fro our sight.

[41] Al-Jaami li Ah’kaam al-Quran, vol. 1, p. 203.

[42] Abul Hasan al-Maawardi, called “Aqdaa al-Qudaa” (the most Judicious of Judges). He died in Baghdad in 450 H.

[43]  Al-Jaami li Ah’kaam al-Quran, Vol. 1. P. 202.

[44] Al-Jaami li Ah’kaam al-Quran.

[45] Quran, Al-Tahrim, 66:6

[46] Quran, Al-Kahf, 18:50

[47] Hasan al-Basri was the imam of Basra and one of the great imams of the Taabi’een. He died in 110 H.

[48] Qataada Ibn Da’ama was a scholar of prophetic tradition, Quranic exegesis and Arabic language. Ahmad ibn Hanbal once called him the most learned person in Basra. He died in 118 H.

[49] Ibid.

[50] Quran, Al-Isra, 17:85

[51] Luqt al-Marjaan ,p.184

[52] Waqaayatul Insaan min al Jinni wa as-Shaitaan, p. 33.

[53] Collected by Bukhaari.

[54] Quran, 76:3

[55] Al-An’aam 6:153

[56] Collected by Bukhaari.

[57] Collected by Bukhaari.

[58] Quran, 4:145

[59] Quran, 15:39

[60] Quran, 29:69

[61] Al-Hajr, 15:40


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