The adhiyya sacrifice of an animal (qurbaani) after the eid is a practice established by the Prophet Ibrahim the friend (khalil) of Allah (AS). It is a means of getting closer (taqarrub/تقرب) to Allah.
Its practice is considered sunna mu’akkadah (firm prophetic tradition) according to the Shaafi’ee, Hanbali, and Maliki schools of Islamic law (madhaahib) for the person who can afford it and has the means to do it, of one animal per Muslim family.
In the Hanafi school, there are two opinions. One, that it is incumbent (wajib) upon the family, and the other opinion is that it is incumbent upon each person in the family who is able to afford it. So for example in this second view, a husband and a wife, if they both are able, would have to each offer a slaughter.
Most practicing Hanafi Muslims (those who practice Hanafi law in this matter) take the practice of slaughtering one animal per family, but for many others, each adult able person performs his or her own individual slaughter. Either way is permissible.
All scholars agree that it is permissible to contract or pay someone to perform your actual slaughter. Some scholars say that up to seven people can get together (pool their money) and slaughter one animal. Additionally, those of the Hanafi school who view the Ad’hiya as wajib, stipulate as long as they are able.
It is reported that the Prophet (SAWS) said, “There are three things that are incumbent upon me but superogatory upon you; the slaughter, the witr prayer, and the two rak’aats of dhuhaa”. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab, both used to not perform the Ad’hiya of Eid for fear that people would take a as an obligation.
By. family it’s meant shared household, or extended families who all share expenses. And Allah knows best.
Imam luqman ahmad. Imamabulaith@yahoo.com